Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Twelve Days of Bombing -- Christmas 1972


Forty years ago, while American families were preparing for Christmas, their North Viet Nam’s counterparts hunkered down in bomb shelters in the single largest bombardment since WWII. 

President Richard Nixon ordered the carpet-bombing out of frustration over the stalled "peace talks" between North Vietnam and the US taking place in Paris. It was also meant to send a signal that the US would bomb North Viet Nam into submission, hence giving the US the upper hand at the negotiating table. 

North Viet Nam did return to the negotiating table, but the the upper hand the US did not get as anti-war protests at home and abroad intensified over the bombing, hastening the US withdrawal from Viet Nam.

B-52 Bomber & the 60,000 pounds (27,215 kg) or 108 bombs
From the 18th to 29th of December, 1972, 207 B-52 bombers flew 741 stories, dropped 15,237 tons of bombs, killing 1,624 civilians and brought North Viet Nam to a stand-still.


B-52 releasing its payload over Viet Nam
In the best of America’s football-loving tradition, the bombing operation was named Operation Linebacker II, otherwise also known as the Christmas Bombings. (Click here for Operation Linebacker I.)

Hanoi in the aftermath of Operation Linebacker II
All this was done while the Judeo-Christian America celebrating yuletide, wishing for peace on earth and harmony among mankind.


Worldwide condemnation erupted when Bach Mai
Hanoi's main hospital was bombed
(Here's a related post on American bombing tradition or Bomb First, Talk Later. And here's a very good 2001 article in the Smithsonian's Air & Space magazine. All photos were taken from Wikipedia.)


Remnants of a B-52 on the streets of Hanoi

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Mekong Delta Fish Sauce -- The Elixir of Life

Like forest fires and volcano eruptions, the devastating floods that have killed more than 1000 in Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam are also the life forces of the Mekong RiverAsia’s seventh-longest and the world's tenth-longest river, respectively.

The floods’ rich silt deposits fertilize the soils of Thailand and Vietnam, turning them into the world’s number one and number two rice exporters, respectively. The floods also stock and feed the fishes of Cambodia’s Tonle Sap, the world’s richest freshwater fishery.

Growing up in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, the floods were not only the source of endless fun, but also a great time for fishing. One particular fish was the humble minnow, or cá linh in Vietnamese, which was used to make a very special fish sauce. Fish sauce, like olive oil to an Italian family, was king in the kitchen, then garlic, MSG, sugar, black pepper and, lastly, salt. Herbs and spices were pretty much whatever that grew in the garden or the back of the house.

For as long as I could remember, we never had to purchase fish sauce. We made our own. Every family did  unique to the Cambodians living around the Tonle Sap area and the Vietnamese in the An Giang and Dong Thap provinces. The minnows were plentiful during the monsoonal flooding season, which runs from July to November.

Fully-grown Mekong River Minnows
The humble two-inch minnows, spawned and hatched in the Tonle Sap or Great Lake, the largest freshwater body in Southeast Asia, began to move out of the lake in June and followed the flood water into the paddy fields around the lake and downstream in Vietnam, where they fattened up, before heading back up into the Tonle Sap to spawn. Most were caught, but enough made it back up the river to begin the life cycle all over again.

The fish was so plentiful that one could literally catch them by placing a net anywhere in the water. Making fish sauce was the primary use, but the minnows, being that small and with tiny bones, were also great for drying, frying, stewing, as well as in the traditional sweet and sour soup. My favorite was battered and deep fried – the Mekong Delta sardines. Eating whole, of course.

Small families could make do with about 40 kilos of fish – good for one year  but large families would need up to 150 kilos.

The process began with the fish being washed thoroughly but with the guts, scales and fins fully intact. For 40 kilos of fish, about 12 kilos of salt would be used. Fish and salt were roughly mixed together, but with about 3 - 5 kilos of salt was left to top the fish off, packing them down.

Kimchee Pickling Jars
Typically large glazed earthen jars were used, ones that are similar to those used for pickling kimchee. Some folks swore by their own secret ingredients, which was nothing more than either one or two pineapples, cut up but unpeeled or a couple of kilos of the rice paddy mud crabs, or both.

The jars then would be left out in the sun, and the mixture would be stirred with large wooden ladles or chopsticks every few days. Pretty soon a pungent aroma began to waft through every town and village in the region. Since everyone was making their own fish sauce, nobody was bothered by the overpowering aroma.

The mash was left out in the sun for about a month or two depending on the size of the fish. The two-inchers typically took about a month to break down. By now what had sunk to the bottom of the jars was essentially highly salted decomposed fish, taken on a grayish-green color.

The big pots or cauldrons would be set out on improvised stoves, outdoors, of course, for the smoke and the pungent aroma would be too much for indoors. Then the mash was transferred into the pots. The cooking process could take up to three or four hours or until all the bones and other secret ingredients completely broken down into tiny bits.

Cooking and Filtering the Mash
The pots, and the fire, had to be constantly tended to, especially to scoop out the heads or impurities that floated to the top. This was key because what rose to the top could essentially ruin the finished product if not scooped out.

Next, fine cheese cloth would be placed on top of pots, pans, jars or whatever type of holding container available. Slowly the cooked mash would be scooped out of the pots and poured over the cloth. The elixir of life slowly squeezed its way through the fine mesh, dripping into the containers below. This slow, painstaking process yielded a crystal clear golden brown liquid, nothing but pure fish sauce. Each 40 kilos of fish yielded about 30 liters of fish sauce.

This fish sauce, called nước mắm cá linh, if done right, was rather fragrant, devoid of any fishy smell. It was salty, but had a pleasant after taste, not a burning sensation. Another way to tell if it was artisanal was to drop in a grain of cooked rice at room temperature. The rice should float to the top. 
And folks, that is the Mekong Delta minnow fish sauce, the Vietnamese elixir of life.

(Nước means water or liquidMắm means pickledCá linh is the Vietnamese name for the minnows.)


Wednesday, August 22, 2012

American Foreign Policy: Bomb First, Talk Later


The let's-bomb-Iran drum beat gets louder as we get closer to November. For the chicken hawks on the right, this seems to be the only way they know how to talk foreign policy, not necessarily having to go fight or enlist their sons and/or daughters, as is the case with Mitt Romney's five able-bodied sons. 

Just in case war-drum beating is not enough, Romney's running mate, Paul Ryan even boasted “I voted to send people to war” as if that proved he has some sort of foreign policy and/or military decision-making experience. 

Mitt Romney and Sons -- Fit to Fight
Bragging about one's wanton desire to bomb other countries whose policies or leaders one doesn't agree with seems to have become the mindset of modern American politicians, left and right. The ability to drop bombs from 30,000 feet without a care as to the destruction on the ground has furthered desensitized politicians, and their supporters, from the consequence of war or the loss of lives. 

America's air supremacy may have begun with the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the scale of America's war machine was put on full display during the Viet Nam War, where one bombing run after another became routine.

It’s Just Another Operation
Though “shock and awe” was a phrase uttered by former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld during the invasion of Iraq, its doctrine was put into good use during the Viet Nam War. The American military even came up with great names for the various bombing campaigns, the most infamous of which was Operation Rolling Thunder. It was designed as “a method of strategic persuasion” to get the North Vietnamese to stop fighting. That went really well there, didn’t it? The bombing began on March 2, 1965 and did not end until November 11, 1968. This was the grand-daddy of the “shock and awe.”


File:Bombing in Vietnam.jpg
American F-105s "Operation Rolling Thunder"
By the end of “Operation Rolling Thunder,” a total of “more than a million sorties were flown and three-quarters of a million tons of bombs were dropped” on Viet Nam.

There were also Operation Barrel Roll, Operation Steel Tiger and Operation Commando Hunt, all took place in Viet Nam. Even our Judeo-Christian tradition could not stop us from bombing Viet Nam “back to the Stone Age,” because there was the Operation Linebacker and, in the best of Hollywood tradition, Operation Linebacker II, otherwise known as the Christmas bombing. It was so named because the US Air Force kept on bombing during and past the Christmas holidays.

The Christmas bombing, which lasted for 12 days, from December 18 to December 29, 1972, was notable for many things. The B-52 Stratofortress bombers, the backbone of the main attraction of the Viet Nam War, were modified to carry up to 60,000 pounds (27,215 kg) or 108 bombs. By the end of the 12 days, 15,237 tons of bombs were dropped on North Viet Nam, mainly  Hanoi and Haiphong.

B-52 Stratofortress Bomber
And you are not going to believe this? the so-called “carpet bombing” of Cambodia began with Operation Breakfast, which was decided by President Richard Nixon and his staff in the Oval Office, right after church service on Sunday, March 16, 1969. Church service!?!?

During the first war with Iraq we had Operation Desert Storm in 1990 and when that did not stop Saddam Hussein’s desire to “take over the world,” we moved on to Operation Desert Fox eight years later. Then we got serious with Hussein with Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, but we have now settled in in Iraq with Operation New Dawn as of September 1, 2011.

Over in Afghanistan we began with Operation Enduring Freedom, which has proven to be long-lasting because we are still there. And because of its enduring quality, we have used it again and again in the Philippines, the Horn of Africa and other places in between.

Commenting on what goes through the mind of the fighter pilots and whether they want to acknowledge what their bombs do to people and things on the ground, Giora Rom, a retired Major General and himself a fighter pilot in the Israeli Defense Forces wrote this in the Haaretz, Israel’s oldest newspaper, in April of 2009.

“Pilots drop bombs. Pilots kill people. Pilots destroy things that took great effort to build. Pilots do all of this without seeing the results of their actions up close.”

And now with the drones, at the press of a button, we can level towns and villages and destroy everything within, all from the comfort of an ergonomic chair in an air-conditioned room, within easy reach of Coca-Cola and pizzas. The drones have furthered eroded our humanity, our innate sense of responsibility and compassion for others. How can we when those we kill are nothing but blips and dots on a computer monitor, zeros and ones, not flesh and blood?

Unexploded bombs dropped on Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam 35 years ago still kill and maim hundreds of innocent people every year, mostly farmers and their children. Viet Nam has estimated that it takes up to 300 years to clear all the unexploded  mines and bombs.


This Laotian man lost both of his arms and right eye to an unexplored 
cluster bomblet while fishing (Photo: Cluster Munitions Coalition)
Death and Destruction Sensitization
Peace and security should not be achieved through death and destruction, as in the cases of Iraq and Afghanistan. Diplomacy should not only be employed after a war or threat of an imminent war.

For the United States, the victims and survivors of every imaginable war and conflict it has ever been involved in since 1940 can be found right here in the good ole’ U.S. of A. Their stories we should know. Their experiences we should learn. Their pain and suffering we should feel. Too often those who are responsible for the policies that take our nation to war do so without empathy and a sense of who the people whose lives we are about to change forever are.

Faces of the very people who have been affected by our government’s foreign policies are reflected in those we see every day at our local gas stations, hospitals, schools and universities, neighborhood restaurants, churches, dry cleaners, banks, shopping malls and convenience stores.

Every effort for peace and every policy designed to achieve security, at home and abroad, should have the voices of these victims and survivors of our past wars and conflicts. Maybe, just then maybe, it will help with our effort to achieve peace and security around the world without the loss of lives and treasury, not to mention our own humanity.

Therefore, it should be a national concern whenever our political leaders beat the war drums, especially the candidates for the White House.

Monday, April 2, 2012

Freedom From Fear: Burma's Baby Step Towards Democracy

I got misty-eyed looking at pictures of Burmese people waiting in lines to cast their votes on Sunday. Their faces and eyes conveyed a sense of hope for something better. To be in those lines, they had already managed to overcome their fear, fear of once again having their voices and aspirations squashed by a brutal and paranoid military regime, which has lorded over them since 1962.

Myanmar villagers walking to polling stations on Sunday, April 1, 2012.
(Photo: Altaf Qadri/AP)

As the outspoken Burmese democracy activist Maung Zarni has noted, it was a "psycho-social" victory for the people of Burma, a resource-rich Southeast Asian nation of 60 million.

In America the term democracy is often thrown around like a chess piece in a match between two political parties that essentially vie for the largess and approval from the ruling class. For the people of Burma, it’s the fundamental and existential necessity of life. Ordinary people, whether Burmese or Vietnamese or Americans, just want to have a dignified life, to be left alone to earn a living in order to feed and clothe their families and, if possible, a nominal amount of freedom to express their hopes and fulfill their aspirations. They want to be able to vent their grievances without fear of being detained, tortured or disappeared.

I Love Democracy. Burma's By-Election, Sunday, April 1, 2012
(Photo: European Press Photo/DailyMailUK)
So to know that something akin to a "free and fair" election did actually take place in Burma, a country that not long ago was considered as closed as that of North Korea, makes one feel hopeful about the world. Whether it's long-lasting remains to be seen and regardless of the behind-the-scene machinations, the people of Burma have set an example for their Asian neighbors, especially Vietnamese and Chinese.

I hope the world media won’t just take up and leave right after election for it was a very wobbly baby-step and the people of Burma, now more than ever, need the world’s help in holding the military regime accountable while they chart the next course of adventure called democracy.

Friday, March 30, 2012

Hip Hop: Americans Don't Own It Anymore

Transcending cultures and languages, when combined with social media, hip hop is a potent catalyst for social and political changes in emerging democracies, especially for young women. In this special edition, I feature a few female voices from Kenya, Brazil, Vietnam, Mongolia and Mexico.

Mongolia's thriving hip hop scene is much more socially and politically conscious than elsewhere in Asia. Gennie is a rare female voice among an almost all-male club.


It's fair to say that Ana Tijoux is the Manu Chao of hip hop. Tijoux was born to Chilean parents who were exiled in France during the Pinochet military dictatorship. Shock is a tribute to Chilean student protests against education budget cuts that began in May 2011, lasting to the present. 


Brazil has a HUGE hip hop scene, 2nd only to the US. Best-known among female rappers is Flora Matos, who is considered a pioneer among many that have emerged from Brasília, the Manchester of Brazil's hip hop. Mundo Pequeno is one of Matos' big hits.


Like rock'n'roll and psychedelic music of the 60s and 70s, hip hop is the musical language that drives youth social and political activism in the digital age.

I really like the cumbia sound, a Colombian and Panamanian dance music in origin, of this hip hop track from Niña Dioz, the blond Mexican MC from Monterrey, Mexico. La Cumbia Prohibida, with Li Saumet. Dioz is the one in glasses.


Here's the queen of Vietnam's hip hop, Suboi Rapper, who was recently featured in Vietnam's 1st hip hop and break dancing film, Saigon Electric. She's got the swagger down.


Below is Muthoni The Drummer Queen, the multi-talented & multi-lingual MC from Kenya. She's known for both her performances and social and political messaging with her music.


Female hip hop artists outside the US, especially in emerging democracies, have to overcome not only the male-dominated industry, but also conservative cultural norms and mores.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Water Spinach – The Revolutionary Vegetable

I knew this lowly vegetable had arrived a few years back when a white gentleman, who shared a table with me at a San Francisco Thai noodle shop, commented how much he liked the crunchy “cilantro” in his beef stew noodle soup.
“What cilantro?” I asked.
“This,” as he held them up with his chopsticks.
“Oh, you mean water spinach.”
“Water what?”
Milder & Crunchier White Stem Variety 
Water spinach – a member of the Morning Glory family – is also known as swamp cabbage in the Philippines, trokuon in Cambodia, phak bung in Thailand or pak bong in Laos, respectively, kangkong to all the Malays of Southeast Asia, kolmi in South Asia, especially Bangladesh, ung tsoi or ong choi to Chinese speakers and, finally rau muống to this Vietnamese's ears.  

As the name implies, it grows in freshwater lakes, ponds and on river banks everywhere throughout Southeast Asia and Southern China. It earns the name cabbage because it is the leafy green that is good for you, as good as cabbage, but cheaper or free.
Even though there are now two different cultivars – white and green stem – that are widely grown on dry land, because of its humble beginning in stagnant water, some people still look down on this heroic herbaceous perennial aquatic plant as peasant food worthy only for the pigs and ducks, which it is often used as feed. The wild variety, which is much darker in color, has a somewhat harsher flavor and tougher bite. 
Harvesting wild water spinach in the Mekong Delta.
(Photo: Tuoi Tre Online)
A heroic plant? You ask. Yes, this lowly vegetable played a very important role in Viet Nam’s fight for independence beginning in 1935.
At Viet Nam’s very first Communist Party Congress, known as the Indochinese Communist Party at the time, which was held in Macau in 1935, as delegates settled in and began their assembly, it was discovered that the man in charge of food and lodging had disappeared with the cash.
The resources required to bring delegates to Macao, especially for a group that was operating in clandestine, did not leave much for lodging and food. So, as the story goes, water spinach soup and dried fish were served at the first Indochinese Communist Party Congress.
Fast forward 30 years later, once again the lowly swamp cabbage played its part in many war stories and memoirs by north Viet Nam’s soldiers, as well as their southern comrades. The most often told stories related to the famous Ho Chi Minh trail.
Ho Chi Minh Trail 
(Photo: Viet Nam National Military History Museum)
The trail, the unofficial north-south thoroughfare, which was not much more than a footpath in some areas, served as THE logistical and supply line for North Viet Nam as its troops pushed southward. It was heavily bombed by the U.S. Air Force, day and night. In fact, during the Viet Nam War, many of the cutely-named bombing runs were targeting the trail, hoping to disrupt the north’s southward march. 

The bombs left their marks all along the trail in the form of craters. It did not take long for mother nature to reclaim her now defiled body. Rainwater soon filled the craters.

Bomb Craters
(Photo: Viet Nam National Military History Museum)
The soldiers began to put fish in there and, you got it, dropped in a few stalks of water spinach for good measure. There were no PXes or mess halls along the Ho Chi Minh trail, but plenty of fish and water spinach that did not require shipping or refrigeration. They also developed a self-regulating system, taking turns to stock and restock these craters so that there was always a ready supply when needed for the next group of soldiers – market fresh. Where-ever the trail left the jungle and the soldiers had no access to nearby craters, both the fish and water spinach were dried for the road.


Uncle Ho tending his water spinach patch.
(Photo: Ho Chi Minh Museum)
So as you can see, the lowly water spinach did indeed play a heroic role in Viet Nam’s struggle for liberation and independence.
Here in Northern California, until a few years ago, water spinach was a luxury item, available only in the summer months. Like many other Asian vegetables, due to the explosive demands from the rapidly-growing Asian immigrant populations, it now can be found year-round, albeit a bit more expensive during the winter months.

Many farmers in California’s Central Valley now grow Asian vegetables in green houses year-round and the Mexican state of Baja California, which borders California, of course, has become the major grower and supplier for almost all of the Asian supermarkets in California, from Orange County to San Jose.

On a recent drive down to Ensenada along Highway 1, I couldn’t help but noticing the familiar vegetable farms dotting the landscape.
Green stem variety, which is now available year round
in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The best way to eat water spinach is a quick stir-fry, with nothing but vegetable or canola oil, garlic, coarse black pepper and a few dashes of fish sauce, of course. Like its name-sake cousin, 2 minutes in a hot wok or frying pan is all it needs. It loses its crunchiness if overcooked. Since it is a utilitarian vegetable of peasant roots, it can be cooked and served in many different ways: salad, soup or just quick-steamed.
For fancy get-ups, my favorites are ones prepared in Malaysian style, especially the one with dried shrimp paste and chili pepper (Serrano is fine) -- kangkung belacan.
Kangkung Belecan
(Photo: mysimplefood.com)
I’ve ordered a few packets of seeds, both white and green stem, from an online seed store and plan to grow them in my little plot since I eat so much it. I can hardly wait for the night-time temperatures to rise a bit more so I can begin the planting.

Friday, January 27, 2012

Mekong Delta Fish Sauce -- The Elixir of Life

Like forest fires and volcano eruptions, the devastating floods that have killed more than 1000 in Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam are also the life forces of the Mekong River, Asia’s 7th-longest and the world's 10th-longest river, respectively.

The floods’ rich silt deposits fertilize the soils of Thailand and Vietnam, turning them into the world’s number one and number two rice exporters, respectively. The floods also stock and feed the fishes of Cambodia’s Tonle Sap, the world’s richest freshwater fishery.

Growing up in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, the floods were not only the source of endless fun, but also a great time for fishing. One particular fish was the humble minnow, or cá linh in Vietnamese, which was used to make a very special fish sauce. Fish sauce, like olive oil to an Italian family, was king in the kitchen, then garlic, MSG, sugar, black pepper and, lastly, salt. Herbs and spices were pretty much whatever that grew in the garden or the back of the house.

For as long as I could remember, we never had to purchase fish sauce. We made our own. Every family did  unique to the Cambodians living around the Tonle Sap area and the Vietnamese in the An Giang and Dong Thap provinces. The minnows were plentiful during the monsoonal flooding season, which runs from July to November.

Fully-grown Mekong River Minnows
The humble two-inch minnows, spawned and hatched in the Tonle Sap or Great Lake, the largest freshwater body in Southeast Asia, began to move out of the lake in June and followed the flood water into the paddy fields around the lake and downstream in Vietnam, where they fattened up, before heading back up into the Tonle Sap to spawn. Most were caught, but enough made it back up the river to begin the life cycle all over again.

The fish was so plentiful that one could literally catch them by placing a net anywhere in the water. Making fish sauce was the primary use, but the minnows, being that small and with tiny bones, were also great for drying, frying, stewing, as well as in the traditional sweet and sour soup. My favorite was battered and deep fried – the Mekong Delta sardines. Eating whole, of course.

Small families could make do with about 40 kilos of fish – good for one year  but large families would need up to 150 kilos.

The process began with the fish being washed thoroughly but with the guts, scales and fins fully intact. For 40 kilos of fish, about 12 kilos of salt would be used. Fish and salt were roughly mixed together, but with about 3 - 5 kilos of salt was left to top the fish off, packing them down.

Kimchee Pickling Jars
Typically large glazed earthen jars were used, ones that are similar to those used for pickling kimchee. Some folks swore by their own secret ingredients, which was nothing more than either one or two pineapples, cut up but unpeeled or a couple of kilos of the rice paddy mud crabs, or both.

The jars then would be left out in the sun, and the mixture would be stirred with large wooden ladles or chopsticks every few days. Pretty soon a pungent aroma began to waft through every town and village in the region. Since everyone was making their own fish sauce, nobody was bothered by the overpowering aroma.

The mash was left out in the sun for about a month or two depending on the size of the fish. The two-inchers typically took about a month to break down. By now what had sunk to the bottom of the jars was essentially highly salted decomposed fish, taken on a grayish-green color.

The big pots or cauldrons would be set out on improvised stoves, outdoors, of course, for the smoke and the pungent aroma would be too much for indoors. Then the mash was transferred into the pots. The cooking process could take up to three or four hours or until all the bones and other secret ingredients completely broken down into tiny bits.

Cooking and Filtering the Mash
The pots, and the fire, had to be constantly tended to, especially to scoop out the heads or impurities that floated to the top. This was key because what rose to the top could essentially ruin the finished product if not scooped out.

Next, fine cheese cloth would be placed on top of pots, pans, jars or whatever type of holding container available. Slowly the cooked mash would be scooped out of the pots and poured over the cloth. The elixir of life slowly squeezed its way through the fine mesh, dripping into the containers below. This slow, painstaking process yielded a crystal clear golden brown liquid, nothing but pure fish sauce. Each 40 kilos of fish yielded about 30 liters of fish sauce.

This fish sauce, called nước mắm cá linh, if done right, was rather fragrant, devoid of any fishy smell. It was salty, but had a pleasant after taste, not a burning sensation. Another way to tell if it was artisanal was to drop in a grain of cooked rice at room temperature. The rice should float to the top. 

And folks, that is the Mekong Delta minnow fish sauce, the Vietnamese elixir of life.

(Nước means water or liquid. Mắm means pickled. Cá linh is the Vietnamese name for the minnows.)